Risk factors and accident prevention of piston air compressor

Air purification refers to the suction of the air compressor. The atmosphere is sucked into the air filter through the 25m high suction tower. The air is purified through the needle filter cloth bag and then goes to the air compressor. The filtered air is compressed to 0.67mpa in the air compressor, washed and cooled by the air cooling tower, and sent to the molecular sieve for adsorption to remove water, carbon dioxide and other hydrocarbons.

The fire and explosion risk factors in the process of air purification and compression are mainly:

1) The filtering effect of the air filter is not good, and the dust content in the air is large, which is easy to form carbon deposition; The adsorption effect of molecular sieve decreases, so that hydrocarbons enter the subsequent distillation column, and excessive accumulation may lead to combustion and explosion;

2) There is something wrong with the cooling water system. The cooling water of the air compressor is stopped, the water supply is insufficient or the water temperature is too high, the cooling effect is not good, and the temperature in the compressor is too high, resulting in the thermal cracking of smooth oil, which forms carbon deposition at the compressor bearing bush, cylinder, air valve, exhaust pipe, cooler, separator and buffer tank. Carbon deposition is a kind of flammable material, which can lead to carbon deposition and spontaneous combustion under high temperature overheating, mechanical impact and air flow impact, When the concentration of carbon oxides (such as CO) reaches the blasting limit, incineration and blasting will occur. 

3) Oil injection pump or smooth oil system fault. The fault of oil injection pump or smooth oil system of air compressor can lead to the lack or suspension of smooth oil supply. The quality problem of smooth oil can lead to poor smooth effect. The mechanical friction and heating of compressor become the ignition source of fire and blasting of air compressor system. Air purification refers to the suction of the air compressor. The atmosphere is sucked into the air filter through the 25m high suction tower. The air is purified through the needle filter cloth bag and then goes to the air compressor. The filtered air is compressed to 0.67mpa in the air compressor, washed and cooled by the air cooling tower, and sent to the molecular sieve for adsorption to remove water, carbon dioxide and other hydrocarbons.

Risk and harm analysis and prevention of air compressor

The abnormal occurrence of the compressor and its supporting parts may lead to the failure of the air compressor or the explosion of the air compressor.

1、 Risk analysis and incident speculation of air compressor

(1) Because air has oxidation function, especially under high pressure, the transportation system has high flow rate, so the risk of the system has not only the risk of oxidation (heat), but also the risk of high-speed wear and friction. Because the cylinder, accumulator 

The air transport (exhaust) pipeline can explode due to overtemperature and overpressure. Therefore, the mechanical temperature of all parts of the compressor shall be controlled within the allowable range.

(2) The mixture of atomized smooth oil or its derivatives with compressed air can cause blasting.

(3) The oil seal of the compressor does not meet the requirements of the smooth system or the air inlet gas, so that a large number of oils and hydrocarbons enter and accumulate in the low-lying parts of the system, such as flanges, valves, bellows and reducer. Under the effect of high-pressure gas, they are gradually atomized, oxidized, coking, carbonized and differentiated, becoming the potential conditions for blasting.

(4) The deliquescent air, the nonstandard cleaning of the system and the replacement of cold and hot may cause rust on the inner wall of the pipe, peel off under the effect of high-speed gas and become the ignition source.

(5) The unstable and surging state in the process of air compression can lead to the sudden rise of medium temperature. This is due to the partial adiabatic contraction effect of the fluid (air) in the system under the sudden effect.

(6) During repair and installation, flammable liquids such as scrubbing materials, kerosene and gasoline fall into cylinders, air receivers and air ducts, which can lead to explosion when the air compressor is started.

(7) The mechanical strength of the compressed part of the compression system does not meet the specification.

(8) Compressed air pressure exceeds the rule. The above conditions may lead to air compressor problems or air compressor explosion.

2、 Prevention of air compressor accidents

(1) The air compressor and its supporting storage tank and pipe system shall be planned in accordance with relevant national planning specifications. Dry filter shall be installed before the suction pipe of large air compressor.

(2) After the air is compressed, the temperature rises sharply, and the air compressor must be equipped with an effective cooling system. For the cooling water system of large air compressor, the anti water cut-off protection device must be flexible and reliable. If the water supply stops during operation, forced water supply is strictly prohibited, and it needs to be stopped for treatment.

(3) The planning and operation of the air storage tank shall conform to the rules of the supervision regulations on safety skills of pressure vessels, and necessary pressure display, overpressure regulation and alarm systems shall be installed. If necessary, interlocking devices shall be planned.

(4) The large air compressor shall be equipped with alarm interlocking devices such as surge, vibration, oil pressure, water supply, shaft displacement and bearing temperature according to the equipment characteristics. Airdrop test shall be conducted before start-up.

(5) Air with certain pressure has strong oxidizability. Therefore, during the storage and transportation of air, smooth oil and other organic substances shall be strictly prevented from mixing into it, so as to prevent oil and other organic substances from being oxidized and burning or blasting in the system.

(6) During the high-speed movement of the air, rust and mechanical impurities may become hot kindling. Therefore, the position and height of the air inlet during the operation of the compressor shall meet the safety requirements to prevent the entry of foreign matters.

(7) In case of abnormal movement and static during the operation of the air compressor, stop immediately for inspection and treatment.

(8) The continuous cold start of large air compressor should not exceed three times, and the hot start should not exceed two times.


Post time: Nov-23-2021